Fullerton College: A Pictorial History

Budget Woes, Curricular Changes, and the Inclusion of Nontraditional Students: 1970-1979

History

On June 8, 1971, the North Orange County Community College District Board of Trustees approved a new Master Plan for Fullerton College. The comprehensive plan called for the rehabilitation of three buildings—Business Education, North Science, and Home Economics-Fine Arts—and the construction of new facilities, including a multi-use stadium and outdoor amphitheatre, but poor economic conditions stopped any major building projects. The 300, 600, and 1000 Buildings were eventually refurbished, but the college concentrated on completing smaller projects, including lighting for parking lots and tennis courts, expansion of the Print Shop, air-conditioning for a number of buildings (Health Center, Business Education, North Science, Home Economics-Fine Arts), folding bleachers for the Women’s Gymnasium, rehabilitation of the swimming pool, and the addition of a new Reading Center, Women’s Center, Veterans Affairs Office, and Service for the Disabled Center. Also added this decade were a new Student Affairs Office, an Office of Community Services, an Artist-in-Residence Program, and the beginnings of a permanent art collection. In 1976, the campus, working with International Telephone and Telegraph (IT&T), switched its phone system from a mechanical one to a touch-tone electronic system, doubling the number of trunk lines to 40 and increasing the number of telephone lines to 319. One major change occurred on August 23, 1972, when the Board of Trustees voted to formally change the name of the College from Fullerton Junior College to merely Fullerton College. The name change necessitated the need for a new logo, and Adam Shawla of Buena Park entered the winning design in a contest sponsored by the Campus Bookstore.

By 1970, the campus was very crowded, with nearly every area occupied, and President John W. Casey made the decision to expand the college’s class capacity without new physical facilities, adding Friday night and Saturday classes, and a three-segment class day of five hours each to relieve classroom pressure. The College began a program of satellite classes at night for students to earn college credit at local high schools, with those in attendance also benefitting from the convenience of easy parking and close location. By 1974, over 3,800 high school students were enrolled, including Saturday classes at Fullerton College. Eventually five satellite campuses were established throughout North Orange County for evening students: El Dorado High School (1651 North Valencia Drive, Placentia), Esperanza High School (1830 North Kelly Drive, Anaheim), Katella High School (2209 East Wagner Avenue, Anaheim), Loara High School (1765 West Cerritos Avenue, Anaheim), and Lowell High School (16200 East Amber Valley Drive, Whittier).

Campus planning was difficult in the 1970s because of the shifting nature of the student population and poor economic conditions. After the Vietnam War ended, the United States entered a recession. Spiraling inflation coupled with high unemployment and slow economic growth, known as stagflation, caused the student population to suddenly decline. The Arab oil embargo of 1973-74 caused gasoline prices to rise sharply and the implementation of gasoline rationing. Fullerton College’s budget situation was further exacerbated by the passage of Proposition 13 on June 6, 1978, which resulted in widespread cutbacks and layoffs across the campus. Due to a 19 percent cut in funding from the state budget, the college cancelled over 200 classes from the school catalog, reduced the number of satellite campuses from five to three, and eliminated over 100 classified positions. The library’s operational budget alone was slashed 73 percent, leaving no funds for books or journals. To deal with the budget crisis, the district required, for the first time, student fees, one for health services, another for parking. The Agriculture Department was phased out in 1972. Nursing, medical records, and medical assisting were transferred to Cypress College in the Fall of 1973, with dental assisting and radiologic technology to follow after construction of a new facility at Cypress. Over protests by the faculty, but with strong endorsement by the student population, physical education was eliminated as a requirement. The District Board also turned to voters in 1972 for assistance. In 1932, the California Legislature had set the maximum tax rate for junior colleges at 35 cents per $100 assessed valuation. The district asked voters to approve a 20-cent tax increase, but Measure CC, which required a simple majority, failed by 28,000 votes.

By 1970, the North Orange County Community College District was serving an estimated 500,000 people in north and west Orange County. It was the fourth largest district in the state and was growing at a rate of approximately five percent a year. The college, along with its satellite campuses, was offering 2,000 classes in 90 different majors by 1974. To serve its constituency, the district expanded its course offerings and programs, targeting additional and nontraditional groups. While the traditional undergraduate group, 18 to 21, leveled off or declined, adults aged 35 and up returned to the classroom in record numbers. During the decade, the number of women over 30 doubled on campus. Programs and courses were aimed at these groups, but the college also targeted retirees, mothers with small children, veterans, the disabled, and those needing remedial assistance. To accommodate these groups, the Fullerton College curriculum changed dramatically. In 1971 alone, the district eliminated 51 courses and approved 67 new ones. Courses added over the decade reflected social and technological changes: One Parent Family, Philosophy of Women’s Liberation, Indian Philosophy of Living, Yoga, Slide Rule and Calculators, Word Processing, Recreation Vehicle Fundamentals, Television Production Techniques, Rapid Reading, Camping in Europe, World of Plastics, Environmental Science, etc.

During this decade, students and scholars, believing that the role of Asian Americans, African Americans, Latinos, Native Americans, and other cultural groups were underrepresented in higher education, began to clamor for classes that covered the history and cultures of peoples of all ethnicities. Fullerton College responded to that concern by starting an Ethnic Studies Program, offering such courses as American Ethnic Studies l and II, Black History, Chicano History, History of Native Americans, etc. The traditional roles of women as mothers and wives began to be challenged, and many female students believed that campus course offerings, such as Personal Charm l and ll, Grooming and Poise, and Figure Control, did not reflect the fact that women were entering the work force in record numbers. In the fall of 1973, the college offered its first course aimed at women who intended to enter the job market, College and Career Opportunities for Women. That was followed by other Women’s Studies classes, including the Role of Women, Sociology of Women, and Introduction to Women’s Studies. Women and men also began to enroll in courses traditionally restricted to one sex or the other. In 1973, the College began offering courses for the disabled, such as electronics classes that were oriented toward home entertainment repair, including television sets, tape recorders, small radios, and high fidelity sets. The classes were open to any adult 18 years or older with a disability, including a history of heart attacks, hearing difficulties, back problems, strokes, nervous disorders, and amputees. In 1972, the campus set up Fullerton College Day for the Blind to encourage the visually disabled to enroll in courses. In a move that would have been shocking decades earlier, the campus also began to offer workshops and seminars on rape prevention, drug and alcohol abuse, venereal diseases, and other social ills that began to beset college students. It was also during the 1970s that on-campus crime became a major issue.

Before Fullerton College broke from Fullerton Union High School, the campus had always had the luxury of sending students not prepared for college courses to the high school to upgrade their skills. Discovering that a growing number of new students lacked basic writing, reading, and math skills, the College began to expand its remedial and tutorial services. A new Reading Center was established and the Math Audio-tutorial program was expanded. VETPREP, a special program designed to prepare veterans to handle academic work successfully at the college level, was started. The program included work in reading, writing, vocabulary, listening, and basic mathematics. In the spring of 1974, the college offered for the first time a basic course for those having difficulty speaking English. The new class was designed to help those who wanted to learn English, but were having difficulty with the basics of the language.

Faculty members responded to the curricular changes by developing new and innovative approaches to teaching. The Business Division started Individualized Self-Pacing (ISP), which allowed students to enroll at any time to begin their coursework throughout the year. Students were free to attend class between 8:00 a.m.-10:00 p.m., working at their own rate of speed. ISP business education courses offered included Business Machines, Business English, Filing and Records Management, Touch Shorthand, and Basic Business Math. Similarly, in 1975, Philip Borst, then Dean of Instruction, started the Integrated Learning Community (ILC), a program which provided a more relaxed approach to learning. Students attended classes only on Tuesdays and Thursdays, and rather than sitting in four-hour lectures, they participated in in-class simulations, small group discussions, and community projects. That same year, Fullerton College joined the Consortium for Community College Television and began offering college credit courses by open broadcast television. By providing this new medium of instruction, the college hoped to reach an outside audience that ordinarily would not come to the campus. Television classes were shown on KABC (Channel 7), KCET (Channel 28), and KHJ (Channel 9). Yet another approach was the mobile classroom which brought educational services into local neighborhoods.

Student apathy was at an all-time high during this decade, with few students participating in campus governance, clubs, and activities. The college and district did respond to student complaints about their lack of say in campus policies by permitting student representation on the Faculty Senate and District Board. There were, however, two movements—the environmental movement and the women’s movement—that sparked the interest of students. Fullerton College students celebrated the first Earth Day on April 22, 1970, with 1500 pledging to use bicycles, skateboards, roller skates, and walking as a means of transport to the campus that day. In the fall of 1968, there were two Conservation 5 evening courses with a total enrollment of 50 students. Two years later, the classes had swelled to 167 students. Faculty members also taught their first Environmental Science courses during this decade. In the 1960s and 1970s, the number of women attending college climbed significantly. Women were motivated to look for ways to use their new degrees and were increasingly accepted as full-time members of the work force with long-term career plans. In 1972 and 1973, the Fullerton College Faculty Women’s Council began to examine the role of women on campus. Many female staff and faculty members at the time thought that women on campus did not appear to be fully participating in the educational decision-making process. To examine the role of women on campus, a Commission on Women’s Concerns was established in 1973. Out of that commission came a new Women’s Center, special counseling programs, a child care facility, and other services designed to make college attendance easier.

Fullerton College sports teams started off the decade with a bang, winning nearly half a dozen conference crowns and a couple of state championships in football, water polo, golf, basketball, wrestling, and swimming, helping the college retain its national reputation. That success was to be followed by equally good years in 1973 and 1976. While football received a large amount of media attention, the swim team really excelled during the 1970s under Coach Ernie Polte, winning championships in 1972, 1975, and 1976. In 1973, Title IX of the Education Amendment of 1972 broadened opportunities for women in sports, requiring colleges and universities to give equal opportunity to women in athletics or risk losing all funding. At the time of the Act’s passage, a typical college or university was spending only one percent of all athletic funding on women. It took awhile, but Fullerton College women did become more of a force in athletics. Women’s basketball, under the direction of Coach Colleen Riley, won several championships, amassing at one point a 19-game winning streak.

Images

This is an aerial view of the campus in the early 1970s. The population of Fullerton in 1970 had grown to 85,987, but the great growth spurts of the 1960s and 1970s stopped, and the city only added 17,000 new residents during this decade. Fullerton College started the Fall of 1970 with 10,075 day students and 4,800 extended day (evening) students. Enrollment was to rise to 23,000, but fluctuated widely during this decade because of economic conditions, the elimination of the selective service draft, and the transferring of many Vietnam veterans to four-year colleges.
This is a map of the campus in 1970/71, which was approximately 76 acres in size.
This is a 1977 shot of Harbor Boulevard in downtown Fullerton, still a popular hangout for Fullerton College students. The Chapman Building (110 East Wilshire Avenue) is on the left, followed by Gold’s Furniture (210 North Harbor) and Roy’s Photographic Service (216 North Harbor). Downtown traffic was still slow enough during this decade to allow for curbside parking along Harbor and Commonwealth Avenues. Many downtown businesses gave discounts to Fullerton College students who had purchased a Student Services Card. Fullerton College students were still employed by downtown merchants on a regular basis, but with the recent construction of nearby Orange County State College (now CSU Fullerton), there was increased competition for jobs.
With the adoption of the California Master Plan in 1960, many junior colleges changed their name, dropping the “junior” in favor of “community.” President H. Lynn Sheller, Esther Hatch and a group of pioneering faculty members, however, narrowly defeated a plan to change Fullerton Junior College to Fullerton College. It was not until August 23, 1972, that the Board of Trustees voted to formally change the name to Fullerton College. At the same time, the District decided to change its name from the North Orange County Junior College District. Chancellor Charles H. Wilson preferred the shorter North Orange Colleges, but the new name selected was the North Orange County Community College District (NOCCCD). It took several years before brochures, signage, stationery, and other forms of communication were altered to reflect the name change. In late 1976, the campus installed new directories between the 1000 building and the Library, near the Music Building, and between the 500 Building and the cafeteria. Standing in front of one of the new directories is counselor Chet Hurd. Fine arts instructor Graham Booth was commissioned by the Associated Students to design and produce the directories.
The 91 (Riverside Freeway) opened in Orange County in 1958, but it was not until early 1970 that the first freeway sign identifying the college was positioned near the Lemon Avenue off-ramp.
With the name change from Fullerton Junior College to Fullerton College, the college decided in 1973 to alter the design of its official seal. To accomplish this change, the College Bookstore held a contest, offering $75.00 for the design selected. The contest guidelines stipulated that the “design must reflect the contemporary nature of the college as well as its heritage. It must not be faddish and must be suitable for extended usefulness.” The winner was Adam Shawula for this design. A commercial artist and the Art Director for Nutrilite Products in Buena Park, Shawula was originally from Pittsburgh, but had moved to Anaheim a few years earlier.
This is the Fullerton College promotional brochure at the start of the 1970s. Courses were still free to California residents, but students were encouraged to purchase the Student Services Card for $5.00, which supported student government and activities, and the Student Athletic Pass for $9.00 for access to all football and basketball games. Students who wanted both cards could purchase the Associated Students Card for $13.00, saving a dollar. In July 1971, the NOCCCD District Board voted unanimously to charge a $3.75 free for health services each semester. It was the first required fee on campus, with more to follow. Funds collected from the new health services fee went into the general fund and enabled the college to broaden programs by freeing funds already budgeted for health care and placing them in other areas.
The 1970s saw the release of the first non-English brochures.
In December 1976, Fullerton College was designated Historic Site No. 19 by the Orange County Historical Commission. The dedication ceremony was held in the College quadrangle on Friday, May 20, 1977, at 10:00 a.m. Showing off the new plaque is President John W. Casey (right) and Don Dobmeier, Commission Chairman. The plaque reads: “Offering its first courses on September 25, 1913 to 28 students, Fullerton College is the oldest community college in continuous operation in California. All of the college classes were held in the Fullerton High School facilities until 1937 when the first building was completed on campus.”
In September 1971, President John W. Casey presented the new College Master Plan, approved by the North Orange County Community College District Board of Trustees on June 8, 1971. Rather than a massive building plan, the Master Plan called for the renovation of the Business Education, the North Science, and Home Economics-Fine Arts Buildings, along with the addition of a few new buildings.
The 1971 Master Plan called for the expansion of the existing campus mall and court area, the elimination of the older portion of the 800 Building and the relocation of that space and those services in a new structure fronting a proposed amphitheater, a parking structure for 1200 cars designed to service the academic area of the campus and the proposed multi-use stadium, and the continued use of heavy landscaping around the perimeter of the campus and in the parking areas. A number of the proposals, such as a multi-level parking structure at Lemon and Berkeley Avenues and the proposed $3 million all-purpose community-college stadium, were never completed as planned because of budget cuts.
This is a 1976 photo of the west side of the Business Education Building (the 300 Building).
This is a 1976 photo of the east side of the North Science Building (the 600 Building).
Also taken in 1976, this is the entrance to the Physical Education Building (the 1200 Building).
In August 1968, the campus spent $45,565 for Phase I of a site improvement and landscaping project. Phase II, which cost an additional $43,033 in 1970, spruced up the campus, adding more trees, shrubbery, and flowers. The landscaping improvements were apparent throughout the campus, including the new palm trees and plants in front of the Administration Building.
This is a shot of the lovely atrium in the South Science Building (the 400 Building). After a few decades, the atrium became an eyesore and the building was demolished and replaced with a new structure.
The atrium in the South Science Building became a popular spot for campus events during the 1970s. In this photo, a female trio performs at an all-campus luncheon.
In 1974, sales at the Campus Bookstore reached $1 million dollars, with the profits used to provide campus services to students. In 1975, the bookstore had introduced a program of book runners—students handed a list of books to an employee who gathered the books for them—but complaints about long lines and congestion continued. During the summer of 1976, the bookstore received a remodel which helped relieve some of the congestion the facility encountered at the beginning of each semester. New computerized cash registers also replaced old electric models.
The major building project during the 1970s was the Reading Center, which cost $266,608. Part of the Humanities Division, the new center was part of an addition above the east-west wing of the Technical Education (the 800) Building. It consisted of a central lab flanked by three full-size classrooms, two areas for small group work, a workroom, and offices. When the center opened in September 1970, more than 1,000 students enrolled for work at levels ranging from basic literary to advanced college study skills and accelerated reading. The center offered courses on spelling, punctuation, reading skills, advanced reading, rapid reading, and listening skills. One of the most popular classes was English 81, a course that helped students whose reading skills needed to be improved for work at the college level. The campus also had a Math Audio-tutorial service area for students.
The Reading Center had separate carrels facilitating the use of a wide range of visual and taped materials.
Located in a new building east of the 600 Building, the Veterans Affairs Office opened on March 4, 1974. The previous two-person, part-time staff was enlarged for a four-person, full-time team geared to helping veterans with housing, job placement, and peer counseling. At the time, there were 3,300 veterans enrolled at Fullerton College, up from 2,700 the previous semester. The federal government had just approved a 13.6 percent across-the-board increase in veterans’ education allowances. For single veterans that meant an increase from $220 per month to $250, and for married students, an increase from $298 to $339. One of the goals of the New Veterans Affairs Office was to speed-up education benefit programs.
In this June 1979 photograph, Fullerton College students lounge in the newspaper, magazine, and journal area of the William T. Boyce Library. The library was heavily used and set a record on October 19, 1970, when 4,858 students passed through the library turnstiles. In addition to the William T. Boyce Library, the campus also had a Music Lab, which had 30 listening stations where students could listen to different musical selections. In June 1973, the library extended an invitation to the community to use its services while the Fullerton Public Library moved to its new facility on Commonwealth Avenue.
The library offered a number of cubicles (called mediated carrels) where students could watch television programs. The first commercially available videocassette recorders (VCRs) were available in the 1970s, allowing students to watch pre-recorded programs. Starting in 1970, the college maintained a multi-channel closed circuit television facility which provided educational and entertaining programs during the day for students to watch. The closed circuit television system, located on the second floor of the library, consisted of 32 carrels containing 14-inch color television receivers. It was the first color system anywhere in the United States. Students could check a daily log to see what shows were playing each day.
The library also had carrels that contained other equipment, such as a tape decks, filmstrip/slide projectors or turntables.
In the 1970s, the Fullerton College Library was used as a display area for an annual Student Art Show. This is a 1975 pottery exhibition.
In 1959, the Fullerton College Library began displaying a collection of dolls of the Presidents of the United States and their wives. The collection was jointly owned by three faculty and administrative members at the college, Dr. H. Lynn Sheller, Dean of Men Ivan Malm, and speech instructor Denver Garner, and was formerly owned by the late Mrs. Atherton, a Fullerton woman who had painstakingly built up an elaborate collection of unusual dolls. The sculpting of the wax dolls was done by Lewis Sorensen, and the clothing by Mary Borden. The Faculty Women’s Club was eventually able to raise enough money to pay the three men, and when the library building was remodeled in 1967, a special case was created for them. During the summer of 1977, Lewis Sorensen, who had created the dolls, presented the college with eight more dolls, and then added the Reagans in 1980. Unmarried and childless, Sorensen (1910-1985), shown here in 1977, started making dolls as a child. The collection includes dolls from President Washington to President Reagan. Two presidents did not marry, so President Buchanan is accompanied by his niece, Harriet Lane, and President Arthur by his sister, Mary Arthur McElroy.
Taken in 2011, this is a photograph of the Lewis Sorensen presidential doll collection now housed on the second floor of the library. Sorensen created three sets of the dolls, but Fullerton College has the most complete set.
An employee stands at the front door of the Financial Aid Office located in one of the temporary buildings in 1977. At the start of the 1970s, short-term loans in small amounts were available from student funds and from the Fullerton College Foundation. Government-guaranteed loans, in amounts up to $1,500 per year, were granted on the basis of need and good standing in the college. Student loan repayment (3% interest) began nine months after the borrower ceased to be a full-time student, but there was a moratorium for those serving in VISTA, the Peace Corps, or the military. Later, economically disadvantaged students had access to a few more financial aid programs: Basic Educational Opportunity Grants (BEOGs), which were direct grants from the U.S. Office of Education for educational expenses; Supplementary Educational Opportunity Grants (SEOGs), grants designed to assist students with exceptionally high financial needs; Extended Opportunity Program Grants (EOPS), awarded to students whose family income was below $6,000 per year; and the College Work-Study (CWS) program, which provided funds to employ students at Fullerton College and with nonprofit and private agencies. At the time, there were no college loans for middle class students, but availability expanded in the 1970s with the addition of more programs, such as the Student Loan Marketing Association (Sallie Mae). In the 1980s when President Reagan cut educational spending and college costs rose, student loans expanded even further, and by 2010, American student loan debt topped one trillion dollars.
Students relax in the quad area in the early 1970s.
This is another shot of the quad area taken in the early 1970s. Frisbees were popular during this period. This student is spinning his frisbee before throwing it.
These students are blowing bubbles during a break from class.
Taken in 1979, this Aggie McGrath rolling across campus.
This is the Hornet statue in 1970.
Some of the original stone and terracotta walls and walkways still existed in the 1970s.
A Fullerton College student walks along Berkeley Avenue during a rainstorm in 1978.
A shirtless student bicycles across the campus in the early 1970s.
Taken in 1972, this shot shows cars parked in front of the Technical Education Building (the 700 Building).
Parking remained a serious problem on campus. Despite gas shortages and long lines at filling stations, students still jammed into available lots. By September 1975, the college was expecting an enrollment of 22,000, and there were 2,200 parking spaces. Despite an oil shortage, spikes in gas prices, and long lines to buy a limited amount of gasoline, students still used their cars as their primary means of transportation. The November 3, 1978 Hornet reported that a survey of 6,245 Fullerton College Students showed that 84.1 percent used a car as their sole means of transportation to and from school. Only 1.3 percent, the lowest percentage in the mode of transportation category, used carpools.
In September 1975, Fullerton College began to charge $10.00 for parking. Students enrolled for more than six units were charged $10 a semester to park on campus; a $5 dollar fee was charged for students taking less than six units. Students who purchased parking permits were also issued nontransferable Orange County Transit District bus passes to be used anytime during the semester. A later study found that very few students used the free bus passes. The fees were used to acquire additional parking facilities, repair existing parking lots, and pay for enforcement. This is a shot of a specially controlled area used to provide parking for women in the surrounding communities using the services of the Cosmetology Dept. students. Customers exchanged their free "Parking Ticket" for a coin which operated the gate.
The parking fee angered a number of students, who crammed into nearby neighborhoods which had restricted parking. Many students were ticketed, resulting in this Hornet cartoon on October 8, 1976. At the start of each semester, the two policemen who patrolled the FC campus were writing an average of 150 tickets per day. Parking fines were raised from $5 to $25 dollars in 1978. Fullerton City officials were aware of the parking situation, and in 1975, constructed a 150-space parking lot on the corner of Lemon and Chapman Avenues, charged 25 cents to park, and also eliminated street parking on Chapman Avenue to speed up traffic.
To provide more parking, construction began in late 1975 on a new 140-space parking lot north of the Auto Shop yard where several agricultural buildings had stood. In this shot, finishing touches to the new lot are being applied to the sidewalks and driveways by workers from the E. C. Construction Company. The campus also purchased four lots at Chapman and Lawrence Avenues (later blocked off) for more parking in 1977. In response to the oil crisis that began in October 1973, the college established preferred parking for carpools, but there were few takers for the exclusive prime parking spots. Despite enrollment declines, better bus service, and enlarged and new parking lots, Fullerton College was still plagued by a lack of available parking during this decade.
In celebration of its 60th anniversary, Fullerton College decided to start a sculpture garden. Starting with its initial acquisition for $14,000—Arcturus, a nine-foot high bronze, created and cast in Rome by Dimitri Hadzi—the college hoped to establish a continuing fund through community support which would permit additional acquisitions of works by leading sculptors. This is a photo of Hadzi (1921-2006) with a model of Arcturus. Hadzi was known for his semi-abstract sculptures in bronze and stone.
Arcturus was unveiled on April 19, 1974 at 7:30 p.m. and temporarily placed near the Music Building. An abstract representation of Hadzi’s favor star in the sky, Arcturus was reminiscent of an upward reaching hand and a heroic crowned figure. The Fullerton version of the statue was nine-feet tall, but the bronze one installed in 1973 in the Federal Reserve Bank in Minneapolis was 25-feet tall.
Arcturus was eventually installed in the garden area between the Music Building and the Administration Building where it became a popular photo-op site.
Dr. Charles W. Wilson (1913-1977), shown here at a 1970 Board of Trustees meeting, remained chancellor until July 1977. Wilson was diagnosed with terminal cancer in 1976, but continued as chancellor until a successor was found. Chancellor Wilson (left) is shown with three members of the Board of Trustees—Felix S. Marinel, President; Francis N. Laird, Vice President; and Mary Pat Toups. Other board members at the time were Melvin D. Hilgenfeld, Secretary; Arthur F. Anderson; Robert E. Ward; and Walton M. Richison.
Dr. Charles W. Wilson was replaced by Dr. Leadie M. Clark on August 1, 1977. She was selected from over 100 applicants. Dr. Clark, the first African American woman to serve as chancellor of a community college district in California, was introduced to campus faculty and staff at a lunch hour reception. In this photo, Iris L. Simmons, President of the Faculty Association, presents Dr. Clark with a corsage. Derk N. Gysberg, President of the Faculty Senate, is on the left. Clark, a native of Illinois, started her career in 1945 as an English teacher in Atlanta. She later served as President of Los Angeles Southwest College from 1970 to 1972; Assistant Superintendent of Los Rios Community College District in Sacramento from 1972 to 1976; and President of Penn Valley College in Kansas City, Missouri, from 1976 to 1977. In July 1985, fourteen months before it expired, the NOCCCD Board did not renew Dr. Clark’s contract, and she filed a $5 million dollar lawsuit alleging racial, sexual, and age discrimination. The Board members responded by placing Dr. Clark on paid administrative leave. She eventually accepted an out-of-court settlement for $125,000 in 1987.
President John W. Casey remained as president at Fullerton College until May 20, 1977, leaving to become chief administrator for the Seattle Community College District. At his farewell banquet and roast on April 22, 1977, Dr. John Casey posed with Minnie Mouse at Griswold’s Inn in Anaheim. Over 350 people attended the event. In 1983, Casey returned to Southern California after accepting the position of President of Pasadena City College.
Dr. John Casey was formally replaced by Dr. Philip Borst, age 49, on November 8, 1977, when he was unanimously appointed by members of the Board of Trustees. Borst graduated from Fullerton College and had received degrees at Stanford and Claremont Graduate School. At the time of his appointment, Borst had been with Fullerton College since 1957 and was serving as the Dean of Instruction. Borst is shown here with his family at a reception for the new president. He was given a three-year contract at $43,000 per year.
In the fall semester of 1976, Fullerton College welcomed twenty-six new faculty members, many of whom are shown in this photo. They included, from left (front row): Raul Rodriguez and Ignacio Pando, EOPS/Counseling; Pauline Hoag and Kay Dickersin, Life Sciences; Jeanne Moores, Humanities; Salli Terri, Fine Arts; Sharon DeLeon and Barbara Bragonier, Home Economics; and Ernestine Herrera, Technical Education. Back row: Andy Kuai, Physical Sciences; Clay Ward, Technical Education; Charles Kading, Fine Arts; Al DeVito, Communications; Michael Judy, Mathematics; Larry Knuth, Physical Education; William Gorman, Business; Kenneth Wagner, Life Sciences; Larry Lowder, Fine Arts; Darrell Kitchell, Communications; and David Lewis, Fine Arts. Some of the new faculty members were first year contract employees, others were part-timers, and still others were temporary employees, serving as sabbatical replacements.
On July 13, 1976, Salli Terri (1922-1996) was selected from a pool of over 100 applicants as a new music instructor responsible for teaching Music Theory, College Choir, and five voice classes. Five months later, in December of 1976, after receiving three positive evaluations in which she was given the highest placement (Channel A) in recognition of her teaching abilities, Terri was fired. Her dismissal caused a firestorm on campus and in the media as the case dragged on until 1979, with Fullerton College receiving much negative press. A Grammy-award winner, Terri had taught for twenty years, done cartoon voices for Walt Disney, and worked with Lucille Ball, Jack Benny, Burl Ives, Aaron Copland, and the Roger Wagner Chorale. At the time, faculty members were not covered by collective bargaining, using the Faculty Senate instead to settle disputes. Because established personnel guidelines were not followed, the Terri case created a very divisive atmosphere on campus and was a contributing factor when faculty members voted to unionize. In September 1978, Governor Jerry Brown signed into law landmark legislation that allowed faculty members in California colleges and universities to select a union to represent them. In November 1978, Fullerton College’s 540 full-time faculty members voted to unionize.
Russell Graham, instructor of Philosophy and World Religions at Fullerton College since 1954, plays at an April 10, 1973 organ recital in the Campus Theatre. Graham originally prepared for a career as a concert organist but turned to teaching philosophy while in college. Over the years, he served five different churches as organist and choir master and continued to give organ recitals in combination with his teaching activities.
Gerald (Jerry) Padilla, Ethnic Studies instructor, talks to students in his class about the paintings of Emigdio Vasquez which were also used in Chicano history classes.
Choral conductor and music instructor Sheldon Disrud in 1975. Disrud attended the University of Southern California as a pre-med student, but after forming a singing group called The Collegians, his career took a different direction. The Collegians later became The Mel Tones, starring singer Mel Torme (1925-1999). For over twenty years, Disrud was the choral/musical director for the Disneyland Annual Christmas Candlelight Procession and Program and also provided musical and choral direction for the Glory of Christmas at the Crystal Cathedral in Garden Grove.
This is electronics instructor Allen “Buck” Catlin and his wife Bonnie (left) at a faculty/staff function in 1979. A U.S. Navy Commander during World War II, Caitlin was also the Chairman of the Orange County Sanitation Board, and in 1982, was elected to the Fullerton City Council, serving as Mayor from 1984-86, 1989-90, and 1993-94. When Caitlin voted for a utility users’ tax increase in 1993, along with two other Fullerton City Council members, he was recalled in 1994.
Homero Miranda (right), a student in the electronics open laboratory, works on color television alignment procedures under the watchful eye of his instructor, Carlisle G. Tanner. The self-paced radio-television laboratory was designed to help handicapped and non-handicapped students learn electronic repair skills which would lead to gainful employment.
Math instructor Frank E. Gardner in front of a blackboard in 1973.
Technical education instructor William G. Houck works with one of the students in the electronics program as they follow an instruction manual to test equipment.
Longtime business education instructor Mary K. Chapman (right) is pictured working with one of her students in developing a seasonal merchandising display.
Student Fred Murphy (left) discusses installation of a new piece of equipment on his Performance Tech Product Evaluation Vehicle with automotive instructor L. Douglas Mether. The vehicle was intended for off-road use only. It was built for drag strip action and assembled on a low budget by Murphy with the assistance of his instructor and a number of automotive product manufacturers who provided technical information and material assistance.
Department head and instructor Nixson L. Borah and student Shirley Anderson analyze her work in a printmaking class.
Three Fine Arts and Humanities faculty members (left to right)—Darwin P. Fredrickson (music), James E. Henderson (drama), and Nixson L. Borah (art)—pose during a creative arts curriculum planning discussion in 1973. The three instructors were known for their innovative educational techniques.
Journalism instructor Lewis S. Barrett exchanges news with student Richard Musser in the Hornet Office in 1973. In support of environmentalism, the Hornet published its December 10, 1971 issue on entirely recycled paper as an experiment.
Art instructor Graham Booth, an author, editor, and illustrator, poses with his most recent work, Bobby Shafto’s Gone to Sea (1970), and his illustration award from the Southern California Council on Literature for Children and Young People. Born in London in 1935, Booth lived in the English countryside as a boy until his family emigrated to Canada after World War II. After formal training at UCLA and USC, he became a professor and later Chairman of the Art Department at Fullerton College. Other books illustrated by Booth included Henry the Explorer (1966), Henry Explores the Jungle (1968), and Henry the Castaway (1972).
Instructor Allen Brown points out planting techniques to a 1975 horticulture class. In 1973, California passed legislation requiring the licensing of people involved in the pesticide industry. To prepare students for the licensure examination, Fullerton College offered three popular mini-courses: Pest Control—Laws, Regulations, and Safety; Pest Control—Plant Disease Control; and Pest Control—Control of Insects, Mites, and Other Invertebrate Pests in California.
In 1970, a horticulture student works with plants growing inside the campus greenhouse, located behind the Science Buildings. The back-to-earth movement and the growing concern with the environment bought new changes to the Horticulture Department as more students enrolled in the program. Jobs in plant management at the time usually involved working for golf courses, parks or nurseries. Students enrolled in Horticulture had three programs to choose from: a certificated program, an AA program, or a more extensive transfer study.
Business instructor Janette F. Day in a typing course taught as part of the Secretarial Science Program in the early 1970s. In 1970, the campus offered 19 separate courses in typing, including Personal Typing, Typing Year Round, Technical Typing, Statistical Typing, Refresher Typing, and Magnetic Tape/Selectric Typewriter Operation. Students who did not personally own a typewriter could use the rented typewriters located in Room 221-C3 on the second floor of the Library.
Campus staff members remained a vital part of the campus. For Halloween in 1976, Administration Building staff dressed up for the occasion. The celebrants included Jane Armstrong, Faith Moore, Wanda Bitrich, Rosalie Gronwall, Maureen Adams, Barbara Baysden, Barbara Caro, Carmen Gutierrez, Mary Shaw, and the two newest members, Community Services personnel Mary Ellen Vlietstra and Lennie Cunningham.
On February 5, 1976, an Army recruit complained of feeling ill at Fort Dix, and within 24 hours Private David Lewis was dead of the swine flu. Fearful of a mass outbreak, President Gerald Ford made the still controversial decision to inoculate all 220 million Americans against the swine flu. The government suspended the program, after 40 million Americans were inoculated, when reports surfaced about the vaccine causing neurological problems. The swine flu vaccination was available free on the FC campus to students, faculty, and staff, but students were required to sign a consent form. Flu shots for students were given in the foyer of the Men’s Gymnasium. In this photo, Dr. Arthur Alne administers the shot to Rosalie Glidewell of the Bursar’s Office. In addition to the FC Swine Flu Clinics, vaccination centers were set up by the Orange County Health Department in Santa Ana and Anaheim.
This is a photo of student body officers for 1971-72: Chris Shury, Senator; Charles Smith, Senator; Robert Lingenfelter, President; Frank Haffner, Finance Advisor; Eric Kisshauer, Treasurer; Bill Burgess, Vice-President; and David Donaldson, Senator.
More minorities served as student body officers in the 1970s, but it was not until May 1976 that a second woman was elected to serve as Student Body President of Fullerton College. Sue Fenwick of Placentia became the first woman since Joan Guss in 1943 to hold the office. A liberal arts major, Fenwick described herself as a feminist. In February 1976, Fenwick had coordinated a three-day Rape Awareness and Prevention Seminar on the campus. In 1977, she was selected as Woman of the Year. Fenwick later became a staff aide to Representative Jerry M. Patterson, the first Democrat to be elected to Congress from a district entirely within Orange County.
In May 1974, Robert G. Doud was selected as President of the Fullerton College Associated Students. Older than most Fullerton students at the age of 35, and steadily employed for 16 years, Doud was also the father of three children. He maintained a 3.9 GPA as a business administration major while also being active in labor union affairs of the steel workers union and served as their treasurer. He was named Man of the Year in 1975. He made the decision to return to school as the aerospace industry began to slump, and he saw many of his co-workers out of work. Doud later transferred to CSU Fullerton. He made an unsuccessful bid to join the Fullerton City Council in 1975.
The empty poll booths in this October 1976 photo reflect that less than two percent of the student body voted in the Associated Student elections. That was an increase from the one percent, 203 students, who voted in the October 1975 election. Student apathy was further reflected in the lack of candidates, with a number of seats left unfilled, and when students did run for office, they frequently ran unopposed. A controversial Associated Students Constitutional Amendment, which would have allowed the Senate to appoint senators in the case of a lack of candidates, was narrowly defeated.
Apathy toward student government proved particularly embarrassing from February 1969 to February 1970 when Fullerton College saw the passing of the presidential position to four separate students. One of those Presidents was Kim Kanel, shown here on the front cover of the February 11, 1970 Hornet drafting his resignation letter. Those resigning complained of student apathy, a lack of campus support, an undefined student constitution, and red tape in getting things done. The situation became worse in October 1973, when John Powell, Senator-at-Large, was forced to resign when it was discovered that he was not the recipient of the Congressional Medal of Honor he claimed to have received. In an interview in the February 13, 1973 Hornet, Powell had also claimed that he was a guest of honor at President Nixon’s Inaugural Ball.
This is a photo of journalism student Lo Woan Jing, one of a number of Vietnamese refugees who enrolled in Orange County colleges and universities during and after the Vietnam War. In the 1970s, Orange County was the location for the largest influx of Vietnamese refugees in the nation. In 1970, Fullerton College had 104 students from 25 foreign countries, about one percent of the student body. While the number of international students had usually been low, the district did implement a policy in 1979 that limited foreign student enrollment to three percent. NOCCCD Board Members made the decision based on the contention that taxpayers should be admitted before any foreign students. Student fees for foreign students were also raised from $13 to $30 a unit in the spring of 1971.
In this shot, students are lined up for registration in the early 1970s. During this decade, registration was still completed in person at the Student Center by going to a series of stations. Students took admission tests prior to enrolling in their first classes. The tests used at FC were the School and College Abilities Test (SCAT), the Cooperative English Test (CO-OP), and the American College Tests (ACT). Tickets for the tests could be obtained by mail or in person from the Admissions Office.
These Fullerton College students are arriving for registration in September 1979. In 1978, the NOCCCD Board adopted a revised “W” policy that allowed students to withdraw from a course without affecting the student’s grade point average. The policy shortened the 12-week period to a six-week period that a student could drop a class with a guaranteed “W” and limited a student to one repeat of a course in which the student had received a “W” or “WF” (withdrawal-failing). Previously, there were no limitations on the number of times a course could be repeated.
In 1977, the college spent $1.7 million to install a computerized system for registration. Compared to the old system, which involved card-pulling and excessive writing, the new system allowed the computer to do much of the clerical work. The Univac computer, however, was slow. It was expected to confirm a student’s class schedule in two minutes, but it ended up taking four to five minutes. In this photo, computer operator Audrey Smith (left) assists student Loree Dayton.
In the fall semester of 1976, General Information Counselor (GIC) tables staffed by counselors were set up on campus to answer questions that did not require a full 20-minute interview with a regular counselor. The GIC tables were located at various outdoor places on campus on Wednesday and Thursday of each week, and on Mondays, Tuesdays, and Fridays inside the center of the Administration Building. The GIC tables helped to ease the workload of counselors. Also, in 1973, for the first time, a mobile unit was parked next to the Administration Building at the Chapman Avenue entrance to the campus as a special Information Center.
Tours of the campus were also provided for new and prospective students.
On October 18, 1978, representatives from 45 four-year colleges and universities converged in the Library/Science Building mall for the fourth College and University Information Day. Many students took advantage of this opportunity to speak with college and university representatives about their future. By the 1970s, the job market had changed significantly, and the expectation was that greater percentages of students would be transferring to a four-year institution to obtain a baccalaureate degree. A 1978 survey of 6,245 students, reported in the November 3, 1978 Hornet, showed that 19 percent of students did not plan to continue their education. Those who planned to transfer favored CSU Fullerton (35 percent) and UCLA (21.2 percent).
This student is working on a geology course project.
Student Gloria Rueda works on an art project in 1973.
An instructor works with students in an architectural design course.
These two students are working in the chemistry laboratory.
Students rehearse in a modern dance class in 1979.
In this photo, a male student enrolled in an Amateur Chef (Foods 69) class receivers pointers on how to prepare food. The food preparation course was designed just for men who enjoyed the culinary arts.
Technical education courses remained very popular during this decade. Here a student receives automotive training in a 1979 course. On the left is faculty member, Dallas Hazleton, who started the automotive program at the college.
Taken in 1979, a female student attends a drafting class.
This technical education student demonstrates the proper use of an engine lathe.
Student Ray Hernandez works with a milling machine in 1973.
Fullerton College students working on a welding project.
Bethel Pomeroy (seated) checks out her new look in preparation for the Cosmetology Department’s annual Hairstyling Contest held in the Campus Theatre in May 1975. Standing, left to right, are cosmetology students Joyce Craig, Shirley Russell, and Sandy Iverson. Instructor Mary McGinley is on the right. The Hairstyling Contest featured entries in a variety of divisions from “quick service” to “unrestrained ingenious fantasy.”
Construction Technology students continued to construct a new house each year during this decade. This is the kitchen of the three-bedroom house constructed in 1973. The dwelling was open for inspection daily on the campus off Nutwood Avenue, with the minimum bid for the contemporary-styled house set at $11,500.
This is a sketch and floor plan for the 1978 Construction Technology residence. In a sign of the times, added effort was made to make the home “energy conscious” with insulation and double-paned windows. The house was purchased by a young couple, Lisa Charles and Bob Davis, who intended to use the dwelling as their first home after their marriage, but when the two could not find a lot for the home, new bids were taken. The house was eventually sold to David Knowles, an instructor at Orange Coast College, and moved to 1572 North Orangewood in Anaheim. Because of the difficulty of finding lots for the houses, the bid procedure was altered so that bidders were required to put up $2,000 instead of $500, with the bid funds lost or forfeited if a buyer reneged. In the 1980s, the College began building homes on vacant lots.
In addition to building a new house each year, Construction Technology students branched out during this decade, erecting the Lemon Park Recreation Building and the Chapman Park Recreation Building, refurbishing the Fullerton Museum Center, and replacing the roof on the 1900 Eastlake-styled Dr. George Clark House (Heritage House), located on the grounds of the Arboretum on the CSU Fullerton campus. These building projects gave students hands-on experience with heavy timber and glue laminated beam placement, wood framing, and roof problems. In this 1974 photo, Bob McCormick (left), Fullerton College construction technology instructor, holds a plaque given by the City of La Habra to Fullerton College students for all the carpentry work done in the construction of the La Habra Girl Scout Pavilion, shown in the rear. Looking on are Robert W. Petri, building construction program instructor, and Joseph W. James, Chairman of the Division of Technical Education. The new Girl Scout Pavilion was to be used for camping out and for plays and shows put on by the Scouts.
As part of the Legal Secretarial Science Program, three FC students—Sue Duple, Yolanda Esqueda, and Sue Neal (left to right)—visit the Fullerton jail located on the second floor of the Police Station. Showing them around is Sgt. Wade Richmond of the Community Relations Office of the Fullerton Police Department. Constructed from 1939 to 1942, the Police Station, originally Fullerton’s first City Hall, is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. The building was designed by G. Stanley Wilson (1879-1958), one of the principle architects of the Mission Inn in Riverside.
In late 1975, Dick Thompson, left, and Jack Townsend, Principal of Buena Park’s Pendleton School and Buena Park School District Director of Instructional Media, throw the switches to beam Radio KBPK-M throughout the district. Because of a higher tower and new antenna system, the station’s primary signal was boosted from 3-5 to 10-15 miles. The radio station had actually made its debut in February 1972. Fullerton College had sought a license to operate its own station but had been denied when it was thought that the Fullerton program would interfere with another station operating in the area. The college brokered an agreement with the Buena Park School District to use their facilities at the Calder School radio station.
In 1974, the Associated Students also funded a closed circuit broadcasting system which broadcast music, news, and public affairs to the cafeteria and patio area. The new system, called KFCR, was located in the northwest corner of the Student Center. Broadcast hours for the station were 8:00 a.m. to 2:00 p.m. five days a week, and 6:00 to 10:00 p.m. on Tuesdays and Thursdays. Students and faculty members in the patio area complained that the loud music hindered conversation. In this shot, a KBPK disc jockey entertains female admirers.
This is KBPK station manager Ken Wheatley in action in 1979.
Adult education courses boomed in the 1970s as many women returned to school and retirees looked to the campus for interesting courses to fill their time. By the early 1970s, over 40,000 adult students were attending courses offered by the district’s Division of Adult Education. In addition to the over 250 noncredit courses taught on the two campuses and at 73 different locations, the Division of Adult Education offered a program which made it possible for adults to earn a high school diploma. In 1973 alone, 2,000 adults took advantage of this program, and over 750 students were awarded their high school diplomas. In this photo, four of the five instructors teaching Creative Breadmaking in the fall of 1974 are shown going over the finer points in preparation for their classes: Karen Trigg, Joanne Lechner, Carol Lamkins, and Becky Fuller (left to right).
While the college had developed a strong base of Adult Education courses popular with district residents, there was an increase in the marketing of classes and activities toward retirees. Because Americans were living longer and retiring earlier, many started living 30 to 40 years after retirement, and were seeking activities that would keep them engaged. To serve that segment of the population, the campus set up the Center for Creative Retirement headed by Dr. Martin E. Hebeling. This photo shows members of the center at a meeting in 1975. Members worked to start a class called “Preparation for Creative Retirement” designed to help future retirees plan for a productive, interesting retirement. The class, first held at the Eastside Christian Church in fall 1974, covered four main areas: the practical aspects of retirement (health and social adjustment), financial planning, creative activity, and social involvement, including volunteer work. For persons who were already retired, four new mini-courses were offered, covering nutrition, personal money management, leisure activities, and focus on current news and events. Senior citizens, 60 years of age, living in the North Orange County Community College District, were also able to attend many college events for free by acquiring a Gold Card.
With the goal of acquainting more retirees with Fullerton College, the campus offered its first Senior Citizens Invitational Day on May 29, 1975.
To serve the needs of mothers with children in school, Fullerton College began scheduling morning classes for these women. One mother who took advantage of the new class offerings was Johnnie Broadfoot, enrolled in the cosmetology program. In this shot, taken in January 1974, her work is being checked by Iris L. Simmons, Chairman of the Cosmetology Department. Cosmetology courses open to students at the time included Wig Styling, Hair Color Problems, Pivotal Hairstyling, Permanent Waving, and Hair Coloring and Bleaching.
Another course that catered to mothers with children in school was power sewing. Here instructor Fernando de la Torre (right) shows Maria Torres of Anaheim the finer points of using a sewing machine. The course was offered by the Adult Education Division at 133 South Anaheim Boulevard in Anaheim.
The father of a child enrolled in the Fullerton College Child Study Center supervises children in the nursery school program. The Child Study Center provided a laboratory school nursery experience for three- and four-year-old children as well as parent education classes. Mothers and fathers were expected to participate two or three days a month and attend ninety-minute classes especially designed to meet their needs.
Children from Mrs. Barbara Freedman’s third grade class at Ford Elementary School in Fullerton walk into the Theatre Arts Dept. for a visit to the college facilities. The visit was part of Mrs. Freedman’s “Fantastic Friday” program offered to children who completed their work by Friday afternoon. The children also enjoyed trips to a fire station, a police station, and the Iris Nampoya (1860?-1942) pottery exhibit at the Muckenthaler Cultural Center.
A teaching trend in the 1970s was the mobile classroom. Mobile units and trailers were converted into rolling classrooms that would bring a variety of educational services into local neighborhoods. Fullerton College instructors showed how to build homes, from foundation to interior decorating, how to cook and sew, and worked with students who needed basic English and math assistance. In this photo, student Patti Melton (center) and Bob Johnson (right) are talking with FC employee Mary Garrity in front of one of the mobile vans. The mobile units also served as a new source of advertising for adult programs.
This is a 1973 interior shot of one of the mobile classrooms. Student Esther Valenzuela (foreground) of Fullerton is working with a number of other students in her sewing class. Valenzuela’s project was one of a number shown at a May 16, 1973 fashion show luncheon at Lemon Park.
Another approach to teaching was the use of television, which at the time was optimistically promoted as a way to eliminate lecture courses. FC maintained a multi-circuit facility which not only served classroom needs in several courses, but also provided a variety of entertaining programs throughout the day. Students consulted a daily log at the library to choose among sports events, the Orange County News, original student productions, and regularly scheduled instructional programs. An assortment of movies, plays, documentaries, and other announced programs were featured in the ITV Showcase Theatre which aired daily at 11:00 a.m. In this photo, two students are working at a bank of television equipment.
Starting in 1974, FC began offering television courses for college credit, such as Cultural Anthropology, Clothing 1A, and Consumer Clothing Evaluation. Students were required to come to the campus to take mid-terms and final examinations. Preparation sessions for the examinations were held for anyone interested with practice tests, question and answer periods, and discussions. The lessons for all the classes could be seen in the library each week. In this photo, Connie Warch, a home economics instructor, is teaching a 1976 sewing class (Connie’s Clothing Corner) for a television audience. The course was offered at FC, but was also available at 36 other community colleges throughout the Southland. The half-hour presentations covered wardrobe planning, sewing, alterations, and garment-making techniques. Two sewing lessons a week were shown on Channels 7, 28, and 50, at 6:00 and 9:30 a.m. and 3:30 and 7:00 p.m.
Another teaching approach was the Integrated Learning Community (ILC), located at Wilshire Junior High. Pioneered by Dr. Philip Borst in 1975, the program provided a more relaxed approach to learning. Students attended classes only on Tuesdays and Thursdays, and rather than sitting in four-hour lectures, participated in in-class simulations, small group discussions, and community projects. This approach allowed students to individualize and integrate their education and, at the same time, earn 15 units per semester. The ILC explored personal values and career choices in a rap session that preceded classes each day. Initially 125 students and five faculty members worked together in such areas as biology, history, English, communications, environmental issues, and psychology.
In 1974, the Division of Home Economics, in conjunction with the 4H Chapter of Orange County, offered a unique class in which freshmen college students could try on the role of teacher with real live students. Under the direction of Mrs. Anita Bangerter, clothing instructor, FC students taught junior high school girls, who were 4H members, in a late afternoon clothing techniques course. The four girls pictured (left to right) are Diane Hollingshead, Theresa Gerola, Cynthia Joyce, and Kathleen Wardel, all of Fullerton.
The 1970s saw the birth of modern computing, and the development of the world’s first commercially viable microprocessors, video games, pocket calculators, floppy discs, microwave ovens, videocassette recorders, and voicemail. The campus incorporated this new technology throughout the decade. These FC students are using early word processors, initially known as memory typewriters. The college offered its first course in word processing in 1978. Using grant funds, Dr. Jack H. Kirschenbaum of the Psychology Department purchased the first Apple II computers used on the campus that same year.
In this 1970 photo, computer technology instructor Alan B. Carter oversees a student using a teletype machine. A rotary telephone receiver is plugged into the “teletypewriter” as she types onto a roll of white paper inside the machine. Now largely obsolete, the teletype machine was used to communicate typed messages from point to point over a variety of communication systems.
During the 1970s, the campus produced a number of William Shakespeare plays. In this shot, cast members from the 1971 production of The Merry Wives of Windsor show off their colorful costumes.
This photo shows Donn Johnson working on the stage set for the 1971 production of The Merry Wives of Windsor.
For the March 1974 production of Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet, former Fullerton College student and fencing instructor Claude Yarbrough (far right) prepares (left to right) John Serembe (playing Tybalt), Richard Blomgren (playing Mercutio), and Jon Bouvia (playing Benvolio) for their swordfight in Act III.
For the production of the musical comedy The Desert Song in July and August 1973, an extensive production staff was recruited as a class project for the Fullerton College Summer Musical Theatre Workshop (left to right): Leo Kreter, musical director; Joanne McAlpine, costume designer; Sandra Kay Stiglinski, stage manager; Bob Sessions, publicity; Todd V. Glen (standing on right), set designer and technical director; and Gwendolyn J. Sharoff, director and choreographer. With music by Sigmund Romberg, The Desert Song is an operetta based on the uprising of a Moroccan group of fighters against French colonial rule.
Robin Francis (left) of Garden Grove, playing the female lead in the 1974 production of Little Mary Sunshine, receives professional pointers from George D. Archambeault, Chairman of the Theatre Arts Department. In the center is Diane Liekhus, who played the role at the college in 1966 and had come back to the campus to reminisce. Liekhus left Fullerton College for Knott’s Berry Farm, became one of the original Gold Diggers on the Dean Martin Show, joined Hamm’s American Heritage Group, and then became a member of the popular Mick Curb Congregation.
In this shot, female lead Robin Francis is getting outfitted for her costumes in the 1974 production of Little Mary Sunshine, a 1959 musical that parodies operettas and old-fashioned musicals, including two numbers from The Desert Song, which had played at Fullerton College in 1973.
In this 1974 shot, George D. Archambeault (left), Chairman of the Theatre Arts Department and director of the Winter season production of J.B., gives professional advice to students cast in leading roles for the production: Kevin Brown (ladder on left), Bill Greenlee (ladder on right), Richard Blomgren, and Nedda Schrum. Written by Archibald MacLeish (1892-1982), J.B. is a play in verse based on the biblical story of Job.
Three actors (left to right) from the 1975 production of Samuel Beckett’s Waiting for Godot: Chuck Williams, Jon Bouvia, and James Pack. Other productions during this decade included Tennessee Williams’ Orpheus Descending, Thornton Wilder’s Our Town, Edward Albee’s The Zoo Story, Neil Simon’s The Prisoner of Second Avenue, T. S. Eliot’s Sweeney Agonistes, and Sophocles’ Oedipus the King.
Fullerton College carolers perform in the Student Center in 1975: Hector Grillone, Becky Carkskaddon, Julie Kohlenberger, and Jon Strash (left to right). .
Two Fullerton College students strike a pose for one of their dances planned for the annual Modern Dance Concert scheduled for May 22-23, 1974 in the Campus Theatre. In the photo, Diana Young is suspended by an unidentified male student while Shirley Owens positions herself on her knees. The annual concert featured original student choreographies on contemporary issues. The concerts were under the direction of Florence E. English, Chairman of the Women’s Physical Education Department.
Valentina Oumansky, actress, dancer, and choreographer, conducted a Master Class in the Fullerton College Dance Studio on March 20, 1973. The guest artist had her own dramatic dance ensemble and had appeared in a number of films, including The King and I, The Music Man, and Can-Can, and later founded the Valentina Oumansky Dramatic Dance Foundation in Los Angeles.
Members of the Fullerton College choral group pose with trumpeters.
This is the Fullerton College Vocal Jazz Ensemble, which was led by instructor and composer Brent Pierce (foreground with microphone).
A jazz band contest in February 1976 brought first place honors in the trumpet category to four FC students (left to right): Bernie Parsons, Bill Nesbitt, Bob Mustol, and Brooks Greer. Mustol also won individual honors as outstanding soloist. The Jazz Band, under the direction of Terry Blackley, did not meet as a class, but held sessions outside of regular school hours.
This is a stage view of the full Fullerton College Jazz Ensemble taken in the 1970s. A student in the front row is wearing an exaggerated “Afro” hairstyle, popular at the time. Known also as the “fro” or “natural,” the Afro grew out of the African American Civil Rights Movement, which brought an appreciation of African beauty and aesthetics.
In October 1974, the College Hour, which had been very popular in earlier decades, was reinstituted, with performers entertaining for free in the Student Center each Thursday from 11:00 to 12:00 p.m. This is a photo of the Cooper Dodge Band, a country and western group from Vermont, performing on October 15, 1978. Other notable singers and groups that performed on campus in the 1970s included Mary Clayton, Jackson Browne, Ambrosia, Santana, Linda Ronstadt, and Johnny Rivers, who gave a free concert on the patio in support of George McGovern. Jackson Browne had graduated from Sunny Hills High School in Fullerton in 1966. Many of the larger concerts were held in the Men’s Gymnasium. Rock concerts were periodically banned because of unruly crowds and damage left from cigarette/marijuana smoking and liquor bottles. At some concerts, FC students were outnumbered by nonstudents or high school students.
As part of the College Hour, the Roger Wagner Chorale also performed. Wagner (1914-1992), who taught at UCLA for over thirty years, also spoke at the 1977 event.
On May 2, 1974, a mariachi band entertained students in celebration of Cinco de Mayo. Children from the Day Care Center were brought over for the event, held in the quad area.
In 1974, Fullerton College celebrated its 60th anniversary with an open house on May 17th from 7:00 to 10:00 p.m. The open house featured displays and demonstrations by each of the departments, a staging of the spring play, You’re a Good Man, Charlie Brown, and a musical presentation by the choral group, Rising Sound. This is the formal invitation that went out to community members. The event was advertised in the Fullerton News Tribune and the Orange County Register.
This is a scene from the May 17, 1974 production of You’re a Good Man, Charlie Brown, a 1967 musical comedy based on the characters created by cartoonist Charles M. Schulz (1922-2000) in his comic strip Peanuts. Here Charlie Brown, played by Loren Hudson, basks in the attention of Karleen Flemming (left), who played the role of Sally, Charlie Brown’s romantic little sister, and Debbie Benson (right), who had the part of Peppermint Patty.
The highlight of the 60th anniversary celebration was the unveiling of a portrait of Dr. William T. Boyce (fourth from left). With Dr. Boyce (from left) are Mrs. W. Dillard Boyce, Dr. R. Dudley Boyce, President John W. Casey, W. Willard Boyce, and Mr. and Mrs. William Rinehart. Dr. Boyce had just published his memoirs, My Years in the Fullerton Junior College, 1915-1950, which was available in the Campus Bookstore. The guest speaker for the evening was notable novelist Jessamyn West (Mrs. Harry Maxwell McPherson), a former student of Dr. Boyce. The portrait was painted by former FC student and ceramicist, Betty Lou Nichols.
In 1963, Fullerton began sponsoring a Night in Fullerton, an annual observance dedicated to art and culture within the city. Art galleries, the Fullerton Public Library, CSU Fullerton, the Fullerton Museum Center, and other organizations opened their doors in this annual citywide festival. In the 1970s, FC eventually stopped having open houses and participated instead in this annual observance, showcasing artwork on the campus, as well as the work of students and faculty.
During the mid-1970s, Americans celebrated the United States Bicentennial with a series of celebrations and observances that paid tribute to the historical events leading up to the establishment of the United States. The Bicentennial culminated on Sunday, July 4, 1976, with the 200th anniversary of the adoption of the Declaration of Independence. To celebrate the Bicentennial, Fullerton College sponsored on April 2-3, 1976, an Americana Expo, which featured a variety of events around campus honoring American arts and crafts. Included were displays of wood carving, loom weaving, breadmaking, stained glass work, furniture, quilting, spinning wheels, antique firearms, and glassware.
For the Americana Expo, Lee Breen, a master woodcarver and member of the Southern California Woodcarvers Guild, applied finishing touches to his Yankee Doodle Dandy creation, a seven-foot bas relief.
The Americana Expo was so popular that FC decided to sponsor a second one, Expo II: Our Cultural Heritage. While the first Expo looked at the crafts heritage from colonial to modern times, the 1977 event was a salute to the crafts heritage of American culture. There were ethnic food preparation demonstrations, along with displays of Native American pottery and baskets, African art, and mining artifacts. Early tours of the Expos were offered to area school children, and on April 15, 1977, four classes from the adjacent Wilshire School converged on the campus for a sneak preview.
As part of the American Bicentennial celebrations, a 26-foot quiltmobile was on display in November 1975. Coordinated by interior design instructor Jerry L. Beitel, the exhibit introduced the American art of quiltmaking to many who had never had an opportunity to see handmade quilts. The following year, Mrs. Beitel helped to introduce two craft classes which stressed early American needlework, quilting and patchwork, bargelo needlepoint, sampler embroidery, and lace crochet. FC students also made a quilt to be exhibited and given away at the April 2, 1976 Night in Fullerton observance.
As part of the Bicentennial celebration, music instructor Brent Pierce, seated at the piano, created Jubilee, a patriotic song and dance extravaganza, which premiered in June 1976. Members of the cast (left to right) included Linda Doughty, Dan Lane, Mark Greer, and Laura Howansky.
Also on hand for the Bicentennial celebration was composer, songwriter, and actor Jester Hairston (1901-2000), who performed on campus on February 29, 1976, focusing on Black spiritual music. An actor on the Amos ‘n’ Andy Show (1951), Hairston is best known for his songs “Amen” and “Mary’s Boy Child,” the most popular Christmas tunes written by an African American. He also had small parts in several notable films, including To Kill a Mockingbird, The Alamo, and In the Heat of the Night.
In 1972, Fullerton College initiated a very successful Artist-in-Residence Program. During the first week of April 1973, Nathan Oliveira, a distinguished American artist and the college’s first Artist-in-Residence, offered open studio demonstrations of his techniques, which were viewed by hundreds of students in Room 1004 of the Home Economics-Fine Art Building. In addition to his demonstrations, Oliveira spoke to art classes and gave a special lecture for the public in the Campus Theatre. Other artists who participated in the program in the 1970s included Peter Alexander, Dimitri Hadzi, Jose Luis Cuevas, Jack Beal, and Joseph Raffael.
Four former Fullerton College students—Scott Birdsall, Dave Baze, Andy Gerber (kneeling), and Don Roth (seated)—are pictured with two of the examples of artwork they completed as a group sculpture endeavor. Both sculptures were exhibited at the college in 1974.
Fullerton College continued to offer its Artists-Lecture Series during the 1970s. The 1974-75 series featured actress Joan Fontaine, a three-time Academy Award nominee for Best Actress, and an Oscar winner for her 1941 performance in Alfred Hitchcock’s Suspicion. Fontaine also gave memorable performances in such films as Rebecca (1940), Gunga Din (1939), and The Women (1939). Other notable figures who made appearances as part of the Artists-Lecture Series during the 1970s included author Ray Bradbury, paleoanthropologist Richard Leakey, psychiatrist Elisabeth Kubler-Ross, photographer Ansel Adams, political journalist Norman Cousins, semanticist Dr. S. I. Hayakawa, comedienne Dick Gregory, actor James Whitmore, historian Arthur Schlessinger, political satirist Mort Sahl, and consumer advocate Ralph Nader. Author Joseph Heller also appeared as part of a College Hour program.
Fullerton College students accomplished much during the 1970s, taking home a number of awards. Three members of the Fullerton College Forensics Team look over trophies they won at a 1973 state speech tournament which included representatives from two- and four-year California colleges and universities. Scott Well (left) won first place in the persuasive speaking finals, while Jonna Hynes took fourth place in the oral interpretation finals, and Joe McCartney placed second in the oral interpretation finals. With only three students participating, Fullerton College tied for second place in the state and was only three points behind the first place winner.
In this 1975 photo, Ronda Pringle, holding the first place trophy, and Nancy Earp look over the perpetual trophy awarded to Fullerton College horticulture students in competition with colleges and high schools throughout Southern California. Holding the huge trophy is instructor Geoffrey Smith, and looking on are Dr. Allen G. Brown (left), Chairman of the Division of Life Sciences, and President John W. Casey (right).
Horticulture instructor William P. Morgan (left) looks over the landscape design drawings which won first prize for Jim Garcia of Fullerton (right). Pictured with Morgan are (left to right) Audrey Teasdale, recipient of the annual $100 educational scholarship presented by the Orange County Chapter of the California Association of Nurserymen, and Kathleen Davis, winner of the second prize award in the landscape design drawing category.
Welding instructor Raymond Johnson (left) looks on as Joseph W. James (right), Chairman of the Division of Technical Education, presents new equipment as awards to two outstanding welding students. Holding the clamp of his new Lincoln arc welder is Carl Mueller (left center). Larry Rhoades (right center) was awarded Victory oxygen acetylene welding equipment. The tools were donated by the Cameron Welding Supply Company (8371 Monroe Avenue) of Stanton.
In 1976, Jane Appling and Michael “Chip” O’Neal, both journalism majors, received the Western Newspaper Foundation award for their demonstrated abilities in college journalism. Appling was the feature editor of the Hornet while O’Neal was the News Bureau Chief.
For four years running, 1974 to 1977, the Hornet student newspaper was the recipient of the All-American rating awarded by the Associated Collegiate Press of the University of Minnesota School of Journalism. The special All-American rating was conferred on the top 20 percent of community college newspapers in the country. Ratings were for quality, content, design, editing, writing, and photography. Showing off a bound copy of the Hornet in this photo are Paula Sellecki, instructor Lewis S. Barrett, and Howard Perkins (left to right) in 1975. In 1977, Perkins would be named Man of the Year and also elected Student Body President, although he would face a recall campaign in 1978.
While journalism courses had moved into other types of media, the main emphasis was still on print publications. In the 1970s, the journalism program began moving more into television news. In this 1974 photo, journalism instructor Lewis S. Barrett (right) congratulates three students—George Park, Richard Charles Barsh, and Glenn Chitjian (left to right)—on their first place win from the Society of Professional Journalism for Student-Produced Films. The students had assisted in the development of a half-hour television news show, the North Orange County Report. The news show also won the Western Regional Award in May 1973, with FC students competing against major universities throughout the western states. The men are standing in front of the Hornet editor’s and sports feature’s offices.
President John W. Casey presents two College Entrance Examination Board Scholarships to students Willie Simmons (center left) and Frank Vejar (center right). Financial Aid Officer Albert Salgado is on the left. The scholarships were sponsored by the Ford Foundation.
On March 3, 1973, Assemblyman John V. Briggs from the 35th District presented a California Legislative Resolution proclaiming the third Monday of March of every year as Teachers’ Day to Dr. Martin E. Hebeling (center) and President John W. Casey (right). A staff member at Fullerton College, Hebeling served as Executive Director of the National Teachers’ Hall of Fame Foundation in Anaheim. Briggs was a highly controversial figure and is best known for sponsoring Proposition 6, also known as the Briggs Initiative, in 1978, which attempted to remove all homosexual and lesbian school employees—and any public school employee who supported gay rights—from their jobs. The measure was soundly defeated by California voters, and even lost in Briggs’ own Orange County. In the 2008 film Milk, Harvey Milk (1930-1978), California’s first openly gay elected official, is shown debating Briggs in Fullerton, but the event never occurred, although the two men did spar on other occasions.
Every October the campus set up booths during Club Week, an event designed to attract new members to college clubs. Club exhibits included brochures, pamphlets, and eager voices designed to entice new membership, but the event was usually a dismal failure. Most clubs did not participate in Club Week, there was consistently poor turnout on the part of students, and many clubs, while listed in the Student Handbook, remained dormant. Inactive clubs during this decade included the Computer Club, the Young Farmers Club, the Plant Science Club, the Society for the Advancement of Management, the Russian Club, the Photography Club, the Home Economics Club, the Martial Arts Club, the Ski Club, the Sailing Club, the Chess Club, Young Republicans, and Young Democrats.
There were, however, a handful of new clubs started during the 1970s. One of those was MEChA (National Movimiento Estudiantil Chicano de Aztlan) in 1971, the same year the organization began its annual Thanksgiving Day food drive. The annual all-campus collection of canned goods and cash contributions made it possible for turkey and all the trimmings to grace tables that would otherwise be without food. Other clubs started during this decade included the Cinema Society, Help Our Polluted Earth (HOPE), the Black Student Union, Women’s Liberation, TWEEN (Those Women Entering Education Now), AWARE (Associated Women’s Re-entry Into Education), and the Society for Libertarian Life, a politically-oriented club for members of the Libertarian Party, which had formed in 1971. Orange County was one of the leading libertarian areas in the nation. One club, the Political Awareness Club, was actually started to stimulate political interest on campus.
MEChA Representatives, David Quezada and Randy Guerro, exhibit items shown during MEChA’s “El Dia de Cultura” on Sept. 17, 1971.
While many clubs on campus were inactive, the religious clubs—Campus Crusade for Christ, Christian World Liberation Front, Latter-Day Saints, and the Newman Club—remained popular. In a blow to those clubs, the NOCCD Board of Trustees voted on October 14, 1976 to treat religious organizations as off-campus groups and charge them the normal fee for use of district facilities. In a four to three vote, board members agreed with the opinion of State Attorney General Evelle J. Younger (1918-1989) that declared “any club having devoting activities should not be allowed district assistance.” Younger’s opinion further stated that “California’s public schools constitute a secular setting and use of public school facilities by religious clubs can be considered tantamount to funding religious activities.” A capacity crowd jammed the meeting to await the board’s decision on the religious club fee issue. The decision was not well received, with the Hornet headline of December 17, 1976 announcing “Board Crucifies Religious Clubs.” The controversy lingered, and in 1978, a lawsuit was filed against the college for religious discrimination. On May 8, 1979, the FC Christian Club also confronted the NOCCD Board on the issue.
Biology instructor Chuck Schneebeck (far left) poses with Fullerton College students who were members of the Friends of Newport Bay (now the Newport Bay Conservancy). The organization worked successfully to preserve and save Upper Newport Bay from being developed into a marina. The Fullerton College wing of this volunteer group worked with longtime Fullerton resident Charles P. Greening (1921-2011), who served as President of the Friends of Newport Bay for eight years. Fullerton College also offered a mini-course titled Upper Newport Bay: An Ecosystem in an Urban Environment. Environmental disasters in the 1970s (Love Canal, Three Mile Island, the Cadiz oil spill, etc.) and the uproar over pesticides increased attention on environmental issues.
In addition to the MEChA Thanksgiving food drive, there were many other fundraisers for charitable causes during the 1970s. In this shot, Fullerton College students show off some of the gifts received in a Christmas toy drive.
The Orange County Chapter of the American Red Cross visited the campus annually. Fullerton College students, faculty, and staff and their families could draw from the FC Blood Bank Reserve when the need arose.
Food sales were popular as fund-raisers, including this soft pretzel sale which ran from January 31 to April 30, 1972. The sale was sponsored by the Society for Advancement of Management (SAM) to raise funds for members to attend an international conference in Arizona in May, to hold a banquet for its members, and to award a scholarship to an outstanding member. In this photo, Lou Magdaleno, a SAM representative, sells another pretzel. The pretzels were made at a Los Angeles bakery, frozen, and then reheated and sold for 20 cents apiece. The poster in the back shows Snoopy with a pretzel announcing “Happiness is sharing a pretzel with a friend.”
In 1976, Merilyn Cashman (right) presents her personal check to Dr. Martin E. Hebeling, advisor to the FC Chapter of the Student California Teachers Association (SCTA), for the work of art held by artist Robert L. Dudley of Garden Grove, Chapter founder. Looking on is Dr. Genevieve Stack, President of the Fullerton College Faculty Association. The art proceeds went to the SCTA with the goal of assisting future teachers.
In 1970, the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) introduced the short form for taxpayers to use when filing their income tax. To assist taxpayers, the IRS established the Volunteer Income Tax Assistance (VITA) program which allowed civic organizations, religious groups, and community action groups to offer volunteer assistance. In 1973, Fullerton College, along with three other Orange County colleges, offered classroom credit to students who took the IRS training course and worked as volunteers in the community. Students taking the course completed 20 hours of classroom work and 30 hours of volunteer service. For all of its hard work, the Business Division was awarded a Certificate of Appreciation from the IRS. Showing off the Certificate (left to right) are instructors Charles Zincke, Edward Stumpf, and President John W. Casey. Fullerton College offered a number of tax preparation courses, including Income Tax Procedure I and II and Tax Preparation for Practitioners.
In July 1971, the United States adopted the Twenty-sixth Amendment which lowered the voting age to 18. Passed during the Vietnam War, a time of nationwide anti-war protests and social unrest, the Twenty-Sixth Amendment had wide public support because it was considered unfair that 18-year-olds were eligible for military service but did not have the right to vote. While political candidates had made visits to Fullerton College during elections, campaigning increased during this decade to attract a larger pool of voters. By February 1972, the Public Interest Research Group, a volunteer organization, had registered 3,000 FC students to vote. This is a view of students on the quad staffing a booth for George McGovern, who was running against Richard M. Nixon in the 1972 Presidential election.
Presidential candidate George McGovern made an appearance on the campus on June 1, 1972, speaking to an overflow crowd of 3,000.
During the 1970s, a number of controversial people were asked to speak on campus. One polarizing figure was actress Jane Fonda, who made appearances in 1972 and 1973 to denounce the Vietnam War, then returned on April 28, 1976 to campaign for her husband, Tom Hayden, who was running for the United States Senate. Other controversial speakers during this decade included radical attorney William Kunstler, reporter Daniel Schorr, and ultraconservative talk show host Robert K. Dornan, who was later elected to the United State House of Representatives. For the most part, Fullerton College students were well behaved. On September 4, 1969, Governor Ronald Reagan had signed a law making it a misdemeanor for anyone to engage in a wide variety of disruptive acts on campus, such as, indecent language, fighting, or offensive conduct. After heckling Reagan at a February 9, 1970 appearance on the CSU Fullerton campus, students Bruce Church and David MacKowiak were arrested, the first time that the new penal code sections against campus disturbances were invoked.
While big-name candidates could draw crowds, student apathy toward college elections extended to local campaigns as well. When three candidates for the Fullerton City Council—Louis Velasquez, Louis “Red” Reinhardt, and Gerald Price (left to right)—showed up on February 19, 1974, hardly any students attended.
Although not welcomed by all students, the Student Senate did approve, in November 1971, the recruitment efforts of all branches of the military service. When the Marine Corp recruiters showed up on campus in May 1972, FC students picketed peacefully, but some also filled out cards for more information. Armed forces recruiters usually set up booths in the quad area to hand out literature and answer questions, and also advertised in the Hornet and the Torch. This is an Army advertisement from the June 1971 Torch.
During the 1970s, it was not unusual to gather around a speaker discussing an important political or social issue. The group is standing in the quad by the library.
Until the Vietnam War ended, Fullerton College students protested on campus, and continued to connect with CSU Fullerton students for demonstrations. One notable rally took place on May 5, 1972, when FC students marched to CSU Fullerton, where the two student groups, led by wheelchair-bound anti-war activist Ron Kovic, marched to the nearby offices of Honeywell, Inc., a defense contract firm.
While anti-Vietnam War rallies were big news on campus, the major protest, and the one that received the most media attention, involved the use of Hillcrest Park for rock concerts. The editor of the June 1971 issue of the Torch called the issue “a microcosm of today’s life, with its generation gap, political polarization, and alienation between young people and a system which cannot or will not adapt itself to the needs and wishes of young people.” After complaints of unruly crowds and loud noise by residents living near Hillcrest Park, the City of Fullerton passed an ordinance outlawing the use of sound amplification in the park. When the rock concerts were stopped, riots and protests broke out, and the park was closed. Fullerton College students formed the Hillcrest Liberation Front, staging protests around Fullerton. The ban was temporarily lifted for an April 25, 1971 concert, where 2,500 people assembled at the Big Bowl area. Eleven people were arrested, mostly for drugs, but the rock concert was peaceful, although the ban remained. This is a photo of the April 25, 1971 concert.
Police are watching the 2,500 young people assembled in Hillcrest Park for a rock concert in April 25, 1971.
While many students on campus protested against the Vietnam War, there were also students who enlisted in the armed forces. One of those was Hornet Editor-in-Chief Brad Swenson, (pictured) who departed for Ford Ord in October 1970. Swenson’s father had been editor of the Hornet in 1937. As with other wars, current and former FC students were killed in action, including 1st Lt. Robert E. Castle, who was killed in Laos. In 1973, Air Force Captain Jose David Luna, a prisoner of war in North Vietnam for six years, was finally returned home. He had attended Fullerton College before entering the Air Force in 1961. In 1970, Vietnam veteran Doug Adams, with the aid of four FC students, three of whom were Vietnam veterans, and the fourth a member of the Marine Corp Reserves, sent 300 Christmas trees to servicemen in Vietnam. Known as Operation Christmas, the trees were purchased from a farm in Montana, hauled to Seattle, then flown to Saigon where they were distributed to various command posts and units throughout the combat zone. Selective service lotteries, which were always announced in the Hornet, continued until June 30, 1973, when the nation moved to an all-volunteer military. The last man was drafted in December 1972 and departed for training in June 1973.
Learning from the mistakes made in the 1960s with the student publication The Black Flag, the college allowed the publication of newsletters by political groups of all persuasions. In 1972, the Senate issued “Guidelines for Distribution of Unofficial Publications,” which stipulated that the publication must be distributed free of charge and not “present a clear and present danger to the established government, the orderly operation of the college, or outrage the public decency.” This photo shows the Young Republican newsletter, The Partisan, and the Radical Student’s Union publication, The Rock.
While Fullerton College had been the site of various crimes since 1913, nearly all of those had been petty, minor offenses. All of that was to change in the 1970s when a series of terrible crimes hit the campus. In early January 1976, a 22-year-old co-ed was abducted from the parking lot near the tennis courts at 1:30 p.m., and then beaten, raped, and left for dead in a field in El Toro (now Lake Forest). The co-ed was able to describe her attacker and the composite sketch led to the arrest and conviction of serial killer Kenneth Richard Hulbert. That horrific crime was to be followed by a shooting on September 26, 1977. Gerald Uejima, 22, of Anaheim, drove his car to the entrance of the Business Building, walked into the Individualized Self-Pacing typing room, and shot aide Terry Harris in the hip before turning his rifle on himself. Uejima fired five shots into the room before his rifle jammed. After these incidents, the campus stepped up security, including installing lights in the tennis courts. Despite calls for the campus to have protection of its own, the Fullerton Police Department continued to patrol the area.
This is the cover of the 1974 catalog of the Technical Education Division. The cover photograph—an unfortunate choice because women were enrolled in technical education courses—reflected the belief by many female faculty members and students on campus that women had secondary status to men in higher education. At the time, women were steered toward secretarial, typewriting, and social and retail service employment positions rather than management or decision-making jobs. Working women often faced sexual discrimination in the mistaken belief that because they were married or most likely would get married, they would not be permanent workers. At the time of this photograph, women’s wages fell to 57 cents for every dollar earned by men.
Similarly, the crowning of Mary Lambourne, an 18-year-old Fullerton College co-ed, as Miss Fullerton in 1975 was viewed by many women on campus as an anachronism, reflecting the sexist idea that women should be valued primarily for their physical beauty. Sponsored by the male-dominated Fullerton Chamber of Commerce, the beauty pageant judged the contestants in three categories: swimwear, talent, and evening gown competition. In a nod to the times, each contestant appeared on stage as the woman she most admired.
The 1970s saw older women returning to campus in every-increasing numbers. Rosella McConnell of Placentia, a retired postal worker and great grandmother, was one of the star pupils of automatic transmission instructor Donald L. Staples. McConnell was putting in about 29 hours a week on campus. When asked why she was taking automatic transmission courses, McConnell replied: “So I won’t get ripped off when I need work done on my car.”
In May 1978, Arnold (Arnie) Berkowitz became the first male to graduate from the college as a legal secretary. In an interview in the May 27, 1978 issue of the Los Angeles Times, Berkowitz stated that he expected to face the same problems “as a woman getting a job as a truck driver.” Berkowitz was the first openly gay man on campus. When Berkowitz was asked to speak on gay issues in a Human Relations in Business course in May 1979, the talk was initially cancelled because it was thought to be too controversial.
Nine women were among the 33 graduates of the 1974 Police Reserve Training School. Training for the Police Reserves was established for police departments in North Orange County through the Police Science Department of Fullerton College in September 1973. Pictured here (from left) are award-winners William J. Wallis for Outstanding Shooting, and Steven R. Lester and Suzanne S. Oliver for Outstanding Academy. On the right is Henry Bertch, Director of Training. A student of the program, Johnie Walkup, made history when she became the first woman Parking Control Officer (PCO) in Fullerton history. After passing the written examination, Walkup was selected from many applicants by a three-man oral interview board.
To examine the role of women on the Fullerton College campus, the college formed, in 1973, a Commission for Women’s Concerns consisting of 65 men and women from the certificated and classified staff. This group divided itself into sub-commissions or sub-committees: Affirmative Action, Women’s Studies, Liaison, Social Events, and Women’s Center. The purpose of the organization was “to unite the Fullerton College campus community in an effort to improve the opportunities for growth and development of women, to increase their influence, to improve their status on campus and elsewhere, and to provide an avenue for their contribution to campus life.” Members of the Women’s Commission are shown here in 1975 (left to right): Doris Covelli (President), Joyce Morton (Past President), Helen S. Clucas, and Iris L. Simmons (Secretary/Treasurer). Membership was $1.00 a year.
Members of the Commission for Women’s Concerns held a number of workshops, symposiums, lectures, and social events for the public. This is a photo of the Commission for Women’s Concern’s Spring Luncheon, held May 1977 in the Faculty Lounge. Speaking at the podium is out-going President Shirley Bernard, who was replaced by Anne M. Riley, a member of the library staff.
One of the early recommendations of the Commission for Women’s Concerns was that a Women’s Center be established. Shown here are some of the women involved in setting up the Women’s Center: Jan Ballard, Amanda Smith, Rita Shankman, Irma Rodriguez, and Mary Shaw (left to right). Rita Shankman was to become the first Facilitator of the Center, which officially opened February 19, 1975. Prior to her appointment, Shankman had been a substitute teacher in several Orange County school districts, and active in volunteer work with various organizations, such as the Anaheim Memorial Hospital Service League and the League of Women Voters. By 1975, the campus was offering courses for women: College and Career Opportunities for Women, Introduction to Women’s Studies, Roles Women Learn, etc.
In 1975, Jan Ballard, Irma Rodriguez, and Dorothy Kapin (left to right) were asked to pose for a promotional poster for the new Women’s Center, located in the Student Center Building. The center served as a referral service, providing assistance in career and educational planning, offered opportunities for community involvement, and helped supplement the existing educational structure to meet the specific needs of women at the re-entry level.
After opening, the Women’s Center began sponsoring programs for women. One of those programs was a forum called “Today’s Woman,” held on May 17, 1975. Speakers included artist Florence Arnold (standing, right) speaking on “You Can Be Your Own Best Friend”; Shirley Bernard (seated, left), an English and women’s studies instructor at Fullerton College talking on “Sexism Is a Social Disease”; and Margaret Westover (standing, left), employment counselor for the California Employment Development Department in Fullerton. Seated on the right is staff member Mary Shaw. Known as Flossie to her friends, Florence Arnold (1900-1994) was one of the most important artists to ever emerge from Fullerton. Arnold had started as an educator, teaching music at Fullerton Union High School, but at the age of 50, she took up painting. Her first works were traditional landscapes and still lifes, but she increasingly found herself drawn to what was known as “abstract classic” painting, and eventually she became a leading exponent of the Hard-Edge School. Mrs. Arnold gave a number of her artworks to Fullerton College, including a set of serigraphs published by Cirros Editions of Los Angeles in 1973.
On the first day of the spring semester of 1974, the long-awaited Associated Students Child Care Center opened at 1440 North Brea Boulevard in Fullerton, providing assistance to many mothers who were attending the college. To qualify, parents had to be enrolled in nine units or more. Morning and afternoon sessions (including snacks) cost $9.00 per week, and an all-day session was $17.50 per week. College administrators and associated students believed that many people were not attending classes because they had children to care for at home, and together they heavily promoted the daycare center. This is an advertisement from the October 8, 1976 Hornet (p. 4). The center also produced a brochure that was distributed around the campus.
On June 23, 1973, Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 was passed by Congress. Controversial from the start, Title IX required gender equity for both sexes in every educational program that received federal funding. Worried that the Act would negatively affect men’s athletics, many looked for ways to limit the impact of the law. In an editorial (“Title IX Unreasonable”) in the March 7, 1975 issue of the Hornet, Title IX was labeled “just another attempt by women-libbers to receive equal treatment under the law” (p. 2). Women athletes on campus were aware that they were not given the attention of male athletes. In an open letter (“Women Athletes Feel Neglected”) to the Hornet, published on September 20, 1974, Linda Seiler, a softball manager, complained that the student newspaper in the spring semester had only published nine stories on women’s sports in sixteen issues. It took well over a year, but on January 16, 1976, the Hornet devoted a full page of photographs to women athletes on campus (p. 6).
Over time, Title IX did prove beneficial to women athletes, who began to make inroads on the campus. In the fall of 1974, eighteen women enrolled in Ann Read’s Advanced Body Conditioning, the first course of its kind at the college. It took awhile for male weightlifters to adjust to women joining them on the men’s balcony in the gymnasium. Two women (from left) enrolled in the course were Sandy Hadler and Charlotte Sulpski.
In 1973, Congress passed the American Rehabilitation Act, the first civil rights act guaranteeing equal opportunity for people with disabilities. Fullerton College had always been active in dealing with the disabled, especially war veterans, but upped its efforts through the Office for the Disabled (OFD), located in the Student Affairs Center. In 1975, the campus received a State grant for $17,000 to remove architectural barriers, and a sum of $150,000 was allocated to install elevators. On behalf of the OFD, the Student Senate provided a small grant to disabled students in dire need of immediate aid. A large number of disabled students were on limited incomes and the Student Senate thought that if some of the financial pressure could be eased, students could better concentrate on their studies.
In this photo, two students work with materials designed for a biology course for the blind. In 1972, a Visual Resource Center was opened to assist the blind and visually handicapped. Visually disabled students were provided with readers (persons who read printed materials to them), a Perkins Braille writer, cassette recorders, and large print typewriters. The Braille Institute of America also provided skilled assistants and individual counseling. Deaf students could also work with an interpreter.
In 1976, a new Services for the Disabled Center opened its doors. Located in the new T-5 Building, just behind the 500 Building, the center was equipped with entrance ramps. The center provided counseling, tutoring, notetakers for the deaf, readers for the blind, and a wide variety of equipment. At the time, there were 120 students in the disabled program. Three of the staff members at the center were Sue Shobert, Lois Copenhaver, and Virginia Aldridge (left to right).
Despite the Vietnam War, the Watergate scandal, and the recession, there was always time on campus for fun. Here a student and his dog participate in a 1979 frisbee contest. When Frisbee throwing got out of control in the quad area, the Associated Student Senate voted, in 1974, to restrict the activity to certain days. Also popular during this era was streaking or running nude, through a public place. One notable streaking event took place on March 11, 1974 at 11:00 a.m., when two masked motorcyclists streaked around the quad area in front of the Student Center. Another fad was pinball machines, and the Associated Students leased a number of pinball machines which were installed in the Student Center.
Here are students participating in a tricycle race.
College students have always traveled, but in the 1960s and 1970s, American college students embraced the idea of low cost, independent international travel. At the time, travel costs were relatively cheap. The Winter issue of the 1977 Torch included an article (“Saving Your Travel Dollars”), which offered travel advice to students. This is a shot of a FC student at an airport ready to depart for an unknown destination. Students who wanted to travel in groups could take European tours sponsored by the Consortium for International Education based in Santa Ana (the Study Abroad Program was not started until 1985). Fullerton College also offered the European Heritage Tour, a four-week tour taught through the History Department on a credit/no credit basis for three units as History 4B-Western Civilization. A total of nine cities in six countries were included on the tours. The European tours ranged from $1,500 to $2,000, with all expenses paid. In 1978, Fullerton College also started offering a Fashion Tour of Europe in which 30 fashion students visited London, Paris, Florence, and Rome, touring fashion houses and stores.